Net Neutrality: Not So Neutral?

Many consumers are not feeling neutral about net neutrality-the idea that all content streaming in to the Internet should be treated equally.

The words “net neutrality” may sound fair enough, but what this really means is anything but neutral-if net neutrality legislation passes Congress, the companies that are developing innovative new technology for the Internet and the consumers who want to enjoy it will not be treated fairly.

Lobbyists for “net neutrality legislation” are currently asking Congress to pass a bill that will-in essence-stifle innovations such as Internet-based cable TV programming and high-speed broadband networks that are currently being developed by companies such as Verizon and AT&T.

The legislation would force Internet service providers to offer the same speed to Internet companies regardless of the content. So a big business sending out video content would be charged the same as an individual blogger using less bandwidth. It only makes sense that Internet providers be able to set prices based on bandwidth use.

Everyone else-consumers, businesses, broadband providers and the government-must pay a competitive price for the bandwidth they use and for additional features like mobility.

The legislation is a lobbying effort promoted by Web site interests, e-commerce sellers and bloggers who want special government treatment, just for them-one government-set broadband price, with special rates and conditions that consumers don’t get.

In essence, net neutrality is just special-interest legislation, made to sound less self-serving.

Charging companies such as Google and Amazon for their use of the network could help fund new innovations that will one day benefit consumers.

Net neutrality could result in a slower, less responsible Internet; higher broadband prices and taxes for consumers; less diversity in the broadband department; slower broadband deployment to all Americans; and less privacy, because net neutrality would require more government monitoring and surveillance of Internet traffic.

Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification: OSPF E2 Vs. E1

Cisco CCNA / CCNP Certification: OSPF E2 Vs. E1 Routes

OSPF is a major topic on both the CCNA and CCNP exams, and it’s also the topic that requires the most attention to detail. Where dynamic routing protocols such as RIP and IGRP have only one router type, a look at a Cisco routing table shows several different OSPF route types.
R1#show ip route
Codes: C – connected, S – static, I – IGRP, R – RIP, M – mobile, B – BGP
D – EIGRP, EX – EIGRP external, O – OSPF, IA – OSPF inter area
N1 – OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 – OSPF NSSA external type 2
E1 – OSPF external type 1, E2 – OSPF external type 2, E – EGP
In this tutorial, we’ll take a look at the difference between two of these route types, E1 and E2.
Route redistribution is the process of taking routes learned via one routing protocol and injecting those routes into another routing domain. (Static and connected routes can also be redistributed.) When a router running OSPF takes routes learned by another routing protocol and makes them available to the other OSPF-enabled routers it’s communicating with, that router becomes an Autonomous System Border Router (ASBR).
Let’s work with an example where R1 is running both OSPF and RIP. R4 is in the same OSPF domain as R1, and we want R4 to learn the routes that R1 is learning via RIP. This means we have to perform route redistribution on the ASBR. The routes that are being redistributed from RIP into OSPF will appear as E2 routes on R4:
R4#show ip route ospf

O E2 5.1.1.1 [110/20] via 172.34.34.3, 00:33:21, Ethernet0

6.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets

O E2 6.1.1.1 [110/20] via 172.34.34.3, 00:33:21, Ethernet0

172.12.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 2 subnets, 2 masks

O E2 172.12.21.0/30 [110/20] via 172.34.34.3, 00:33:32,
Ethernet0

O E2 7.1.1.1 [110/20] via 172.34.34.3, 00:33:21, Ethernet0

15.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets

O E2 15.1.1.0 [110/20] via 172.34.34.3, 00:33:32, Ethernet0

E2 is the default route type for routes learned via redistribution. The key with E2 routes is that the cost of these routes reflects only the cost of the path from the ASBR to the final destination; the cost of the path from R4 to R1 is not reflected in this cost. (Remember that OSPF’s metric for a path is referred to as “cost”.)
In this example, we want the cost of the routes to reflect the entire path, not just the path between the ASBR and the destination network. To do so, the routes must be redistributed into OSPF as E1 routes on the ASBR, as shown here.
R1#conf t

Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.

R1(config)#router ospf 1

R1(config-router)#redistribute rip subnets metric-type 1

Now on R4, the routes appear as E1 routes and have a larger metric, since the entire path cost is now reflected in the routing table.
O E1 5.1.1.1 [110/94] via 172.34.34.3, 00:33:21, Ethernet0

6.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets

O E1 6.1.1.1 [110/100] via 172.34.34.3, 00:33:21, Ethernet0

172.12.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 2 subnets, 2 masks

O E1 172.12.21.0/30 [110/94] via 172.34.34.3, 00:33:32, Ethernet0

O E1 7.1.1.1 [110/94] via 172.34.34.3, 00:33:21, Ethernet0

15.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets

O E1 15.1.1.0 [110/94] via 172.34.34.3, 00:33:32, Ethernet0

Knowing the difference between E1 and E2 routes is vital for CCNP exam success, as well as fully understanding a production router’s routing table. Good luck in your studies!

Using Social Media To Increase Sales And Create Brand Awareness

Using Social Media To Increase Sales And Create Brand Awareness

Using Social Media to Create Brand Awareness Companies are continuously launching marketing campaigns in an effort to promote their brand and boost their sales. Some of these are highly successful Carlsberg’s slogan and advertising of probably the best lager in the world’ generates excellent brand awareness and reputation. This then contributes to increased sales and ultimately increased profits. However, many of these companies have large marketing and advertising budgets. What if your company can not afford these marketing initiatives? This is where Social media marketing comes in. Most social media marketingtools’are free to use and can provide the same amount of marketing exposure whether you are just starting out or are a giant conglomerate. This article explains how you can use social media marketing to increase sales at a relatively low cost.

Firstly, let’s just dispel the myth that social media marketing does not lead to a direct increase in sales. Here are some examples to prove this: Sony announced in February that through Twitter they had earned an extra 1million in sales, Dell announced in June last year that their presence on Twitter accounted for $3 million dollars increase in sales. You might argue that these are two big companies and they already have a brand reputation. However, other smaller companies have also experienced increased sales through social media marketing. John Fluevog Boots & Shoes Ltd, a small shoe making company in Canada, reported a 40% increase in sales in 2009, the same year it started social media marketing, this was not by chance.

So how can social media marketing contribute to increased sales for your company? Social media tools allow you access to millions of people. A television advert will reach the people watching at that time and allows for no interaction with the consumer. One tweet can reach millions of people. Sainsbury’s for example regularly tweet their latest offers. Anyone wanting to keep up with these can simply follow Sainsbury’s on Twitter. This gives a much bigger potential customer base and allows for sales to increase, whilst also creating brand awareness. Furthermore, people can respond to these tweets, which provides a forum for customer interaction and thus customer insight. Your business can emulate this, tweeting your promotions provides free advertising. If this is done creatively, it really can boost sales and get your company noticed.

Social media marketing works in a similar way to other forms of marketing; it is viral. A small company initially works on a word of mouth basis, people tell their friends. Social media, especially Twitter and Facebook, work with this friend’ concept. People can give you positive reviews, recommend your product and tweet about your company. This whole social community allows your company’s name and brand to be viewed by a significant amount of people. Continuous use of social media over time creates brand awareness and thus helps to increase sales. One of our clients, PeachorLemon, a car review website, gained over one hundred followers on Twitter within a week. This is a hundred more people who know about promotions and offers, may tell their friends, visit the website or use other social media outlets to mention PeachorLemon. All this creates brand awareness and over time increased use of the website, thus increasing its value.

The effect social media can have on brand awareness is critical in the future of small businesses marketing strategy. Brand awareness is only one way in which sales are increased, there are many other important contributing factors. However, as this article has demonstrated, creating brand awareness through social media can have a huge impact on your business and revenues.

By Anthony O’Flynn